The ubiquity of pathogenic microbes (protozoa, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) and other external parasites in a production environment of farm animals ultimately prone the animals to infections or infestation of pests and diseases which on gestation may turn out to be chronic or deadly. Consequences of this are poor productivity by animals, increased cost of animal production arising from treatment or veterinary services, economic loss of animals, hindrance of production and/or productivity of animal food source industries, and possibly impairment of human health by infections from the animals. Pathogens are so small that they cannot be seen by sight except with the aid of electronic magnifiers. These pathogenic micro-organisms are transmitted to animals through various substrates or vectors such as water, soil, waste or faecal matter, humans and animals. A healthy animal will generally have a good look with a characteristic good body structure and posture. Related body indicators of animals with good health include robust outlook and/or roundness of the stomach, smooth and well-laid hair or wool with uniform coverage over the body, bright eyes, and dry nose and mouth. On the other hand, a sick animal will put up a poor appearance that may be characterized by leanness, caved-in stomach, falling air or wool, nasal discharge, dripping salivation and/or continuous coughing. The caved-in stomach may have to do with poor feeding or poor feed conversion efficiency by the animal, while the falling hair or wool may be due to ectoparasite infestation of the animal.
One of the managerial goals of livestock keepers is the maintenance of the good health of their animals as this is crucial to achieving profitable and sustainable animal production. On this note, livestock farmers try as much as possible to keep the animals free of infestation and infections, through hygienic practice and possibly vaccination of the animals against certain disruptive or deadly diseases.
One of the best practices to maintain the good health of the animal is adding yeast to the diet of the animals. Yeast products are immunomodulating compounds that interact directly and indirectly with pathogens and immune system components which will inhibit the onset of disease caused by protozoans and viruses.
Yeast may also inhibit the binding and colonization of bacterial pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract which can mitigate subsequent infections. In addition, Yeast can promote fibrolytic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and may improve gut health.
Livestock production is a key component of world agriculture. In fact, throughout the world, human populations largely depend on domestic animals for a multitude of purposes, essentially the production of meat, fat, milk, and other dairy products, eggs and fibers like wool or cashmere as well as other purposes such as transport, draft, and provision of fertilizers, especially in developing countries.
Of all the factors influencing livestock production, climate, and location are undoubtedly the most significant. In fact, climatology characteristics such as ambient temperature and rainfall patterns have great influence on pasture and food resources availability cycle throughout the year, and types of disease and parasite outbreaks among animal populations. So, climate change and global warming are the major concern that will define livestock production systems and livestock productivity globally and will have even greater influence on selection of livestock types and breeds in the coming tock productivity is the likely increase in incidence of tropical diseases and parasitism in temperate and Mediterranean climates.
Many diseases affect livestock productivity can also cause disease in humans, such as Trypanosomiasis, Salmonellosis, and Brucellosis. Many animal diseases are not zoonotic, however they result in severe economic hardship. Livestock diseases can cause direct losses (deaths, stunting, reduced fertility, and changes in herd structure) and indirect losses (additional costs for drugs and vaccines, added labor costs and profit losses due to denied access to better markets
and use of suboptimal production technology) in revenue. The optimization of animal production is therefore of paramount importance.
To support the productivity of the animals is the development of quality feeds that could adequately supply the animals’ energy requirements. since quality feed has a significant value to the healthy living of the animals as this readily enhances key metabolic functions of the animals to improve fertility and reproductive efficiency, immune function.
Yeast products are important feed additives that will enhance the productivity of the animal. Yeast products can Increase feed utilization efficiency, Improve milk yield, and Improve growth. In addition, yeast products not only alter live performance but also influence differences in carcass performance and meat quality.
The overuse and misuse of antibiotics in animal farming and agriculture is the main factor that may contribute to drug resistance in humans. Using antibiotics in animals may raise the risk of transmitting drug-resistant bacteria to humans either by direct infection or by transferring resistance genes from agriculture into human pathogens.
Additionally, antibiotics are sometimes used to make the animals grow faster but on other hand, this will cause another problem for humans. For example, studies from trusted sources have shown that antibiotics raise the risk of weight gain and obesity, as they wipe out beneficial gut bacteria that help regulate weight.
Many farms give chicks antibiotics as soon as they are born, regardless of whether they are ill or not which is an example of misuse of antibiotics.
Around three-quarters of the world’s antibiotics are used on animals. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are resulting in a global public health crisis since it is contributing to the rising threat of antibiotic resistance. WHO is recommending that farmers and the food industry stop using antibiotics routinely to promote growth and prevent disease in healthy animals only sick, individual animals (and not whole herds) may be administered antibiotics.
There are Alternative options to antibiotics for disease prevention in animals including fodder yeast. Fodder yeast supports a healthy gut microbiome which comes with associated benefits to wellness, including immune support, stress relief, protection from infections and disease, and digestive and intestinal health. Each individual strain of yeast has unique health-promoting properties and researchers are still discovering the breadth of what yeast can do for our animals. yeast has a good ability to prevent or counteract the negative impacts of antibiotics on the gut health and microbiome.